The oldest accounts of irrigation system can be accredited from China. It is believed that engineers in China have devised irrigations for farmlands since the 5th century BCE. In the present era, with quantum technological advancements, more innovative forms of irrigation systems have emerged from different corners of the planet and boast efficiency and effectively. With the advent of motorized pumps and drip irrigation systems, arid farmlands are now cultivated and yield harvest like that of the tropics and sub tropics.
No one can deny the reliability and efficiency of sprinkler irrigation system. About 75-85% of water is effectively delivered to the root zones of the plants and that is a lot of water saved. However, its contender, drip irrigation, won the top place by more than 5%. This 90% above efficiency means that less water is wasted and more is saved for other purposeful needs. This technological advancement greatly favored farming in the dry lands and other areas experiencing water scarcity.
By slowly delivering water on the root zone, water is absorbed right before it evaporates. Another thing is, spontaneous spraying of water wets the foliage and gives out too much moisture making plants susceptible to foliar diseases. By directly infusing water on the root zone dramatically reduces the likelihood of contacting such ailments.
Pumps vs Gravity
Employment of Gravity Flow Drip System is a very cheap way for starters. This drip irrigation system especially proves to save more water during the rainy seasons and humid areas where collection of water through condensation is possible. Rain water or condensed water can be collected and routed to your drip system making your procedure the most water efficient of all. This particular method, however, is not applicable on all terrain. This will work very effectively on straight downhill slopes or flat lands but on hilly terrains, your best option is to obtain a pump for even distribution of pressure. Anyhow, coupling a pump on an overhead water collector is not impossible.
An element of prime importance is pressure regulation. This determines how much water is delivered through the emitters and onto the base of the root zone. Regulators can successfully taper the amount of pressure but only for that purpose. If you want to boost pressure, what you need is a pump. There are 2 types of pressure regulator valves out in the market: the adjustable type and the non-adjustable type. The non-adjustable type regulator is the cheaper choice among the two but you will only be allowed to taper down the pressure on the preset setting of the manufacturer. The adjustable type, however, is a better since might require a different level of watering as they grow.
Aside from regulation of pressure from the valve, emitters also play a role in the regulation of water flow. These emitters are specifically designed to taper the flow of water to avoid soil erosion.
Another thing that affects pressure is the gauge and length of lines you use. Remember, the longer the lines, the more friction loss you get.